Wednesday, August 31, 2016

Cinematography Notes 15

Cinematography: Color vs. black and white

A practical, accurate commercial system of colour cinematography was not perfected until Technicolor was introduced in Walt Disney's animated short Flowers and Trees (1932) and in the feature film Becky Sharp (1935). The introduction of colour was less revolutionary than the introduction of sound; the silent film soon disappeared, but, even though most feature films made since the 1960s have been in colour, black-and-white films continue to be made. In fact, directors such as Woody Allen (Manhattan, 1980), Martin Scorsese (Raging Bull, 1979), and Joel Coen (The Man Who Wasn't There, 2001) chose to film in black and white to give their movies a calculated tone.

A black-and-white motion picture is not merely a picture that lacks colour but rather an artistic creation with positive qualities of its own. An ample range of effects can be obtained—from precise images, in which every hair, every grain can be clearly seen, to a smudged charcoal effect. In the cinema, black-and-white composition has often been designed to attain a distinctive dramatic impact.

Nevertheless, colour introduced a new world into the cinema and steadily grew more effective. It can be used to produce a powerful dramatic impression. The German director Rainer Werner Fassbinder, for example, used garish colours in films such as Despair (1977) to lend a seductive but finally suffocating tone to his melodramas. A similar use of colour can be found in the American director Todd Haynes's film Far from Heaven (2002). Both Fassbinder and Haynes were inspired by the Technicolor movies of Douglas Sirk. The Italian director Michelangelo Antonioni claimed to have studied colour for years before venturing to make his first colour film, Il deserto rosso (1964; The Red Desert). In that film he used disturbing yellows, pinks, grays, and greens, even going so far as to paint dump heaps and fruit gray for one scene, to express a neurotic woman's sensibility and the oppressiveness of her industrial environment. He changed film stock for a sequence in which the woman tells her child a story about a girl on the beach. The bright postcard colours seen in that sequence contrast dramatically with the sickly grays and greens of the rest of the film. Colour can be employed even more symbolically than this; in Eisenstein's Ivan Grozny II: Boyarsky zagovor (completed 1946, released 1958; Ivan the Terrible, Part II; “Ivan the Terrible, Part II: The Boyar Conspiracy”), red turning to a bluish shade represents the fear of a pretender about to be assassinated.

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